Saturday, June 30, 2018

Friday, June 29, 2018

Establishing a 17C Dutch Vineryard by Jan van der Groen (1635-1671)

Het inleggen der Wyngaerden (Establishment of vineyards) From Jan van der Groen - Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier (1670).  

In 17C England, the relationship between man & nature was evolving, as Francis Bacon (1561-1626) promoted man as "the minister & interpreter of Nature."  The 17C Dutch property owner believed that it was his religious duty to order God's creation - Nature untamed.  Improving, clipping, trimming, & geometrically ordering Nature was morally righteous. God's improved garden must become a balance of beauty & utility. This view of Nature perfected was promoted in gardening manuals, such as 1669 De Nederlandtsen Hovenier by Jan van der Groen (1635-1671), the gardener of Orange. It was man's responsibility to see that God's gift should be "dressed up. made fine, in good order, elegant & pleasurable." The book functioned as a manual & a visual source of information on "Dutch Classic Garden Architecture."  The typical 17C Dutch design pattern has the house standing at the end of an imaginary axis, which divides a rectangular piece of land into two halves. If possible, the rectangle has ideal dimensions, length & width as four to three. Generally, the whole is enclosed by trees, but it may also be surrounded by a canal system. In this perfection of God's undisciplined Nature, the rectangle itself is again divided into square gardens, usually decorated with French foliage & Italian flowers. In this garden may be mazes, deciduous walks & deciduous giants. Walks guide along artfully constructed trellises, & there are also low fruit trees in diagonal rows intermingled with berries & grapes. Box hedges often surround low ornamental vegetation. There are also flower beds with pots on tiles. The geometric practical kitchen garden, a square or rectangle, was divided into equal parts by crossing paths. Roots, salad plants, & aromatic & medicinal herbs filled the beds. Useful herbs were part of another important component of Dutch garden design. In addition to their beauty & recreational uses, gardens also had to be practical & productive, providing fruits, vegetables, & herbs. Van der Groen insisted that these gardens should be profitable, healthful, pleasurable, & salutary. The oak, maple, & ash trees provided shade for the walkways & wood for warmth & building.  The garden's decorative water could also serve as a pond for edible fish & irrigation for the growing plants. 

See

Crisp, Frank
1924 Mediieval Gardens. (Two vols.) 
John Lane, London.

Culpeper, Nicholas
1990 Culpeper's Complete Herbal and English Physician Enlarged. 
(Reprint of 1814 edition.)
Meyerbooks, Glenwood, Illinois.

Danckaerts, Jasper
1913 The Journal of Jasper Danckaerts (1679-1680),
ed. by B. B. James and J. F. Jameson.
Barnes and Noble, New York.

D' Avity; Pierre
1646 Newe archontologia cosmica. 
Wolfgang Hoffman, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

De Caus, Salomon
1980 Hortus Palatinus: die Entwurfe zum
Heidelberger Schlossgarten von Salomon de
Caus. (2 vols.) Reprint of Hortus Palatinus
a Friderico rege Boemiaeelectore Palatino
Heidelbergae extructus, 1620 
Grune Reihe, Worms, Germany.

De Jong, Erik
1990 For Profit and Ornament: The Function
and Meaning of Dutch Garden Art in the
Period of William and Mary, 1650-1702. 
In The Dutch Garden in the Seventeenth Century.
Dunbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC

De Vries, Hans Vredeman
1980 Hortorum viridariorumque elegantes et multiplicis
formae. Reprint of 1583 with additional
sheets from 1587. 
Van Hoeve, Amsterdam.

Fuchs, Leonhart
2001 The New Herbal of 1543. Taschen, Cologne,
Germany.
Northeast Historical Archaeology/Vol. 34, 2005. 75

Hopper, Florence
1982 The Dutch Classical Garden and Andre
Mollet. Journal of Garden History 2(1):'
25-40.

Hunt, John Dixon
1990 "But who does not know what a Dutch
garden is?": The Dutch Garden in the
English Imagination. in 
The Dutch Garden in the Seventeenth Century 
Dunbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 
Washington, DC

Hunt, John Dixon, and Erik de Jong, eds.
1988 The Anglo-Dutch Garden in the Age of William and Mary. 
Journal of Garden History 8(2, 3), April-September 
Taylor & Francis, London.

Jellicoe, Geoffrey, and Susan Jellicoe, eds.
1986 The Oxford' Companion to Gardens. Oxford' "
University Press, New York.

Kuyper, W.
1980 Dutch Classicist Architecture. Delft
University Press, Delft.

Lauremberg, Peter.
1631 Horticu/tura, libris II.comprehensa; huic
nostro coe/o & solo accommodata; regulis,
observationibus, experiment is, & figuris navis
instructa: In qua quicquid ad liortum proficue
colendum, et eleganter instruendum facit,
explicatur. Matthaus Merian, Frankfurt am
Main, Germany

Nylandt, Peter
1682 De Nederlandtse herbarius of kruydt-boeck.
Reprint, 1976. Interbook International,
Schiedain, the Netherlands.

1683 De medicijn-winckel, of ervaren huys-houder.
Included in Part 3 of Het vermakdyck landtleven.
Gysbert de Groot, Amsterdam.

Schama, Simon
1987 The Embarrassment of Riches: An
Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden
Age. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Temple, Sir Richard Carnac, ed.
1925 The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and
Asia: 1608-1647. Volume IV of Travels in
Europe: 1639-1647. Hakluyt Society,
London.

Van de Passe, Crispin
1928 Hortus Floridus: The First book contayninge a
very lively and true Description of the Flowers
of the Spring. Reprint of ca. 1614 English
translation. The Cresset Press, London.

Van der Groen, Jan
1669 Le jardinier hollandois/der niederlandische
gartner. Marcus Doornick, Amsterdam.

1670
Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier. Marcus
Doornick, Amsterdam.

1683
Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier. Part I of Het
7Jermllkelijck landt-leven. Gysbcrt de Groot,

Amsterdam.

Wednesday, June 27, 2018

1645 Bruges Family with their Large Formal Garden in the Background

The Renaissance, from the 14-17C, marked a turning point in portraiture. Renaissance artists began to paint secular scenes, breaking away from the dominant religious art of medieval painters. Partly out of interest in the natural world & partly out of nostalgia for classical Greece & Rome, portraits became valued as symbolic & allegorical objects & as depictions of earthly success & status. The period in Europe was the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages & modern history. The relationship between man & nature was evolving as Francis Bacon (1561-1626) promoted man as "the minister & interpreter of nature." Portraits began to depict the wealthy & the middle class in natural landscapes & in more formal garden settings, where man was obviously controlling the nature around him.   As time passed, the Renaissance garden & grounds became as much as symbol of the owner's wealth & culture as his house, his clothes, or his art collection.
1645 Jacob van Oost (b 1603) - Portrait of a Bruges Family with their elegant Formal Garden in the background.

Monday, June 25, 2018

1400s Gardener in Nuremberg, Germany

Gardener, Landauer Twelve Brother's House manuscript

1413 An ancient Egyptian goddess grafting a tree...


Harley 4431 f.107v  - Isis grafting trees.  1413-1414 Queen Isabeau of Bavaria (1371-1435), married king Charles VI of France in 1385, manuscript produced for her under the supervision of Christine de Pizan (c 1364- c 1430)

Isis was worshipped as the ideal mother and wife as well as the patroness of nature and magic. Isis was a goddess from the polytheistic pantheon of Egypt. She was first worshiped in Ancient Egyptian religion, and later her worship spread throughout the Roman empire and the greater Greco-Roman world.

The Roman writer Apuleius wrote of Isis in his 2nd century CE, novel The Golden Ass.  "I am nature, the universal Mother, mistress of all the elements, primordial child of time, sovereign of all things spiritual, queen of the dead, queen of the ocean, queen also of the immortals, the single manifestation of all gods and goddesses that are, my nod governs the shining heights of Heavens, the wholesome sea breezes. Though I am worshipped in many aspects, known by countless names ... the Egyptians who excel in ancient learning and worship call me by my true name...Queen Isis."

Sunday, June 24, 2018

17C Dutch Gardeners Working in an Orange Stove House by Jan van der Groen (1635-1671).

1670 Oranje - Stoove (upper) Citroen Boom - Vijge Boom & Oranje Boom (lower). From Jan van der Groen - Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier.  

In 17C England, the relationship between man & nature was evolving, as Francis Bacon (1561-1626) promoted man as "the minister & interpreter of Nature."  The 17C Dutch property owner believed that it was his religious duty to order God's creation - Nature untamed.  Improving, clipping, trimming, & geometrically ordering Nature was morally righteous. God's improved garden must become a balance of beauty & utility. This view of Nature perfected was promoted in gardening manuals, such as 1669 De Nederlandtsen Hovenier by Jan van der Groen (1635-1671), the gardener of Orange. It was man's responsibility to see that God's gift should be "dressed up. made fine, in good order, elegant & pleasurable." The book functioned as a manual & a visual source of information on "Dutch Classic Garden Architecture."  The typical 17C Dutch design pattern has the house standing at the end of an imaginary axis, which divides a rectangular piece of land into two halves. If possible, the rectangle has ideal dimensions, length & width as four to three. Generally, the whole is enclosed by trees, but it may also be surrounded by a canal system. In this perfection of God's undisciplined Nature, the rectangle itself is again divided into square gardens, usually decorated with French foliage & Italian flowers. In this garden may be mazes, deciduous walks & deciduous giants. Walks guide along artfully constructed trellises, & there are also low fruit trees in diagonal rows intermingled with berries & grapes. Box hedges often surround low ornamental vegetation. There are also flower beds with pots on tiles. The geometric practical kitchen garden, a square or rectangle, was divided into equal parts by crossing paths. Roots, salad plants, & aromatic & medicinal herbs filled the beds. Useful herbs were part of another important component of Dutch garden design. In addition to their beauty & recreational uses, gardens also had to be practical & productive, providing fruits, vegetables, & herbs. Van der Groen insisted that these gardens should be profitable, healthful, pleasurable, & salutary. The oak, maple, & ash trees provided shade for the walkways & wood for warmth & building.  The garden's decorative water could also serve as a pond for edible fish & irrigation for the growing plants. 

See

Crisp, Frank
1924 Mediieval Gardens. (Two vols.) 
John Lane, London.

Culpeper, Nicholas
1990 Culpeper's Complete Herbal and English Physician Enlarged. 
(Reprint of 1814 edition.)
Meyerbooks, Glenwood, Illinois.

Danckaerts, Jasper
1913 The Journal of Jasper Danckaerts (1679-1680),
ed. by B. B. James and J. F. Jameson.
Barnes and Noble, New York.

D' Avity; Pierre
1646 Newe archontologia cosmica. 
Wolfgang Hoffman, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

De Caus, Salomon
1980 Hortus Palatinus: die Entwurfe zum
Heidelberger Schlossgarten von Salomon de
Caus. (2 vols.) Reprint of Hortus Palatinus
a Friderico rege Boemiaeelectore Palatino
Heidelbergae extructus, 1620 
Grune Reihe, Worms, Germany.

De Jong, Erik
1990 For Profit and Ornament: The Function
and Meaning of Dutch Garden Art in the
Period of William and Mary, 1650-1702. 
In The Dutch Garden in the Seventeenth Century.
Dunbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC

De Vries, Hans Vredeman
1980 Hortorum viridariorumque elegantes et multiplicis
formae. Reprint of 1583 with additional
sheets from 1587. 
Van Hoeve, Amsterdam.

Fuchs, Leonhart
2001 The New Herbal of 1543. Taschen, Cologne,
Germany.
Northeast Historical Archaeology/Vol. 34, 2005. 75

Hopper, Florence
1982 The Dutch Classical Garden and Andre
Mollet. Journal of Garden History 2(1):'
25-40.

Hunt, John Dixon
1990 "But who does not know what a Dutch
garden is?": The Dutch Garden in the
English Imagination. in 
The Dutch Garden in the Seventeenth Century 
Dunbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 
Washington, DC

Hunt, John Dixon, and Erik de Jong, eds.
1988 The Anglo-Dutch Garden in the Age of William and Mary. 
Journal of Garden History 8(2, 3), April-September 
Taylor & Francis, London.

Jellicoe, Geoffrey, and Susan Jellicoe, eds.
1986 The Oxford' Companion to Gardens. Oxford' "
University Press, New York.

Kuyper, W.
1980 Dutch Classicist Architecture. Delft
University Press, Delft.

Lauremberg, Peter.
1631 Horticu/tura, libris II.comprehensa; huic
nostro coe/o & solo accommodata; regulis,
observationibus, experiment is, & figuris navis
instructa: In qua quicquid ad liortum proficue
colendum, et eleganter instruendum facit,
explicatur. Matthaus Merian, Frankfurt am
Main, Germany

Nylandt, Peter
1682 De Nederlandtse herbarius of kruydt-boeck.
Reprint, 1976. Interbook International,
Schiedain, the Netherlands.

1683 De medicijn-winckel, of ervaren huys-houder.
Included in Part 3 of Het vermakdyck landtleven.
Gysbert de Groot, Amsterdam.

Schama, Simon
1987 The Embarrassment of Riches: An
Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden
Age. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Temple, Sir Richard Carnac, ed.
1925 The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and
Asia: 1608-1647. Volume IV of Travels in
Europe: 1639-1647. Hakluyt Society,
London.

Van de Passe, Crispin
1928 Hortus Floridus: The First book contayninge a
very lively and true Description of the Flowers
of the Spring. Reprint of ca. 1614 English
translation. The Cresset Press, London.

Van der Groen, Jan
1669 Le jardinier hollandois/der niederlandische
gartner. Marcus Doornick, Amsterdam.

1670
Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier. Marcus
Doornick, Amsterdam.

1683
Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier. Part I of Het
7Jermllkelijck landt-leven. Gysbcrt de Groot,
Amsterdam.  

Saturday, June 23, 2018

Gardeners Preparing the Garden 17C

1654 Francis Cleyn (After); Wenceslaus Hollar (Print made by) John Ogilby's The Works of Publius Virgilius Maro (London 1654, Virgil's 'Georgics', p 88)

Friday, June 22, 2018

Real & Imaginary Garden Celebrations - Attr to Louis de Caullery 1555-1622

Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) Feast in a Castle Park

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Thursday, June 21, 2018

Gardeners Working - The Nobleman Gentleman & Gardeners Recreation 1718

The Nobleman Gentleman & Gardeners Recreation by S S; from Andrew Johnston 1718 (Lovely garden fountain.)

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

17C Dutch Gardens by Jan van der Groen (1635-1671)

Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier   From Jan van der Groen - Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier 1670.  

In 17C England, the relationship between man & nature was evolving, as Francis Bacon (1561-1626) promoted man as "the minister & interpreter of Nature."  The 17C Dutch property owner believed that it was his religious duty to order God's creation - Nature untamed.  Improving, clipping, trimming, & geometrically ordering Nature was morally righteous. God's improved garden must become a balance of beauty & utility. This view of Nature perfected was promoted in gardening manuals, such as 1669 De Nederlandtsen Hovenier by Jan van der Groen (1635-1671), the gardener of Orange. It was man's responsibility to see that God's gift should be "dressed up. made fine, in good order, elegant & pleasurable." The book functioned as a manual & a visual source of information on "Dutch Classic Garden Architecture."  The typical 17C Dutch design pattern has the house standing at the end of an imaginary axis, which divides a rectangular piece of land into two halves. If possible, the rectangle has ideal dimensions, length & width as four to three. Generally, the whole is enclosed by trees, but it may also be surrounded by a canal system. In this perfection of God's undisciplined Nature, the rectangle itself is again divided into square gardens, usually decorated with French foliage & Italian flowers. In this garden may be mazes, deciduous walks & deciduous giants. Walks guide along artfully constructed trellises, & there are also low fruit trees in diagonal rows intermingled with berries & grapes. Box hedges often surround low ornamental vegetation. There are also flower beds with pots on tiles. The geometric practical kitchen garden, a square or rectangle, was divided into equal parts by crossing paths. Roots, salad plants, & aromatic & medicinal herbs filled the beds. Useful herbs were part of another important component of Dutch garden design. In addition to their beauty & recreational uses, gardens also had to be practical & productive, providing fruits, vegetables, & herbs. Van der Groen insisted that these gardens should be profitable, healthful, pleasurable, & salutary. The oak, maple, & ash trees provided shade for the walkways & wood for warmth & building.  The garden's decorative water could also serve as a pond for edible fish & irrigation for the growing plants. 

See

Crisp, Frank
1924 Mediieval Gardens. (Two vols.) 
John Lane, London.

Culpeper, Nicholas
1990 Culpeper's Complete Herbal and English Physician Enlarged. 
(Reprint of 1814 edition.)
Meyerbooks, Glenwood, Illinois.

Danckaerts, Jasper
1913 The Journal of Jasper Danckaerts (1679-1680),
ed. by B. B. James and J. F. Jameson.
Barnes and Noble, New York.

D' Avity; Pierre
1646 Newe archontologia cosmica. 
Wolfgang Hoffman, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

De Caus, Salomon
1980 Hortus Palatinus: die Entwurfe zum
Heidelberger Schlossgarten von Salomon de
Caus. (2 vols.) Reprint of Hortus Palatinus
a Friderico rege Boemiaeelectore Palatino
Heidelbergae extructus, 1620 
Grune Reihe, Worms, Germany.

De Jong, Erik
1990 For Profit and Ornament: The Function
and Meaning of Dutch Garden Art in the
Period of William and Mary, 1650-1702. 
In The Dutch Garden in the Seventeenth Century.
Dunbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC

De Vries, Hans Vredeman
1980 Hortorum viridariorumque elegantes et multiplicis
formae. Reprint of 1583 with additional
sheets from 1587. 
Van Hoeve, Amsterdam.

Fuchs, Leonhart
2001 The New Herbal of 1543. Taschen, Cologne,
Germany.
Northeast Historical Archaeology/Vol. 34, 2005. 75

Hopper, Florence
1982 The Dutch Classical Garden and Andre
Mollet. Journal of Garden History 2(1):'
25-40.

Hunt, John Dixon
1990 "But who does not know what a Dutch
garden is?": The Dutch Garden in the
English Imagination. in 
The Dutch Garden in the Seventeenth Century 
Dunbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 
Washington, DC

Hunt, John Dixon, and Erik de Jong, eds.
1988 The Anglo-Dutch Garden in the Age of William and Mary. 
Journal of Garden History 8(2, 3), April-September 
Taylor & Francis, London.

Jellicoe, Geoffrey, and Susan Jellicoe, eds.
1986 The Oxford' Companion to Gardens. Oxford' "
University Press, New York.

Kuyper, W.
1980 Dutch Classicist Architecture. Delft
University Press, Delft.

Lauremberg, Peter.
1631 Horticu/tura, libris II.comprehensa; huic
nostro coe/o & solo accommodata; regulis,
observationibus, experiment is, & figuris navis
instructa: In qua quicquid ad liortum proficue
colendum, et eleganter instruendum facit,
explicatur. Matthaus Merian, Frankfurt am
Main, Germany

Nylandt, Peter
1682 De Nederlandtse herbarius of kruydt-boeck.
Reprint, 1976. Interbook International,
Schiedain, the Netherlands.

1683 De medicijn-winckel, of ervaren huys-houder.
Included in Part 3 of Het vermakdyck landtleven.
Gysbert de Groot, Amsterdam.

Schama, Simon
1987 The Embarrassment of Riches: An
Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden
Age. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Temple, Sir Richard Carnac, ed.
1925 The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and
Asia: 1608-1647. Volume IV of Travels in
Europe: 1639-1647. Hakluyt Society,
London.

Van de Passe, Crispin
1928 Hortus Floridus: The First book contayninge a
very lively and true Description of the Flowers
of the Spring. Reprint of ca. 1614 English
translation. The Cresset Press, London.

Van der Groen, Jan
1669 Le jardinier hollandois/der niederlandische
gartner. Marcus Doornick, Amsterdam.

1670
Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier. Marcus
Doornick, Amsterdam.

1683
Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier. Part I of Het
7Jermllkelijck landt-leven. Gysbcrt de Groot,
Amsterdam.

Tuesday, June 19, 2018

Gardeners Working - 1646 Allegoru of Planting Golden Apple Trees

Allegory of planting the Golden Apples in Rome - Johann Friederich Greuter after Guido Reni from Giovanni Battista Ferran 1583-1655 Hesperidez rive de malorum aurrorum cultura et utu 1646 

Monday, June 18, 2018

Real & Imaginary Garden Celebrations - Attr to Louis de Caullery 1555-1622

Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622)  Allegory Of Spring - Celebrating the Coming of Spring to the Garden

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Sunday, June 17, 2018

Gardeners Working 1682

Frontispiece - Planting a tree - Frans Ertinger after Charles Emmanuel Biset Etching from Frans van Sterbeeck (1631-1693) Citricultura Antwerp J. Jacops, 1682

Saturday, June 16, 2018

17C Dutch Gardens by Jan van der Groen (1635-1671)

Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier  Frontispiece.  From Jan van der Groen - Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier 1670. 

In 17C England, the relationship between man & nature was evolving, as Francis Bacon (1561-1626) promoted man as "the minister & interpreter of Nature."  The 17C Dutch property owner believed that it was his religious duty to order God's creation - Nature untamed.  Improving, clipping, trimming, & geometrically ordering Nature was morally righteous. God's improved garden must become a balance of beauty & utility. This view of Nature perfected was promoted in gardening manuals, such as 1669 De Nederlandtsen Hovenier by Jan van der Groen (1635-1671), the gardener of Orange. It was man's responsibility to see that God's gift should be "dressed up. made fine, in good order, elegant & pleasurable." The book functioned as a manual & a visual source of information on "Dutch Classic Garden Architecture."  The typical 17C Dutch design pattern has the house standing at the end of an imaginary axis, which divides a rectangular piece of land into two halves. If possible, the rectangle has ideal dimensions, length & width as four to three. Generally, the whole is enclosed by trees, but it may also be surrounded by a canal system. In this perfection of God's undisciplined Nature, the rectangle itself is again divided into square gardens, usually decorated with French foliage & Italian flowers. In this garden may be mazes, deciduous walks & deciduous giants. Walks guide along artfully constructed trellises, & there are also low fruit trees in diagonal rows intermingled with berries & grapes. Box hedges often surround low ornamental vegetation. There are also flower beds with pots on tiles. The geometric practical kitchen garden, a square or rectangle, was divided into equal parts by crossing paths. Roots, salad plants, & aromatic & medicinal herbs filled the beds. Useful herbs were part of another important component of Dutch garden design. In addition to their beauty & recreational uses, gardens also had to be practical & productive, providing fruits, vegetables, & herbs. Van der Groen insisted that these gardens should be profitable, healthful, pleasurable, & salutary. The oak, maple, & ash trees provided shade for the walkways & wood for warmth & building.  The garden's decorative water could also serve as a pond for edible fish & irrigation for the growing plants. 

See

Crisp, Frank
1924 Mediieval Gardens. (Two vols.) 
John Lane, London.

Culpeper, Nicholas
1990 Culpeper's Complete Herbal and English Physician Enlarged. 
(Reprint of 1814 edition.)
Meyerbooks, Glenwood, Illinois.

Danckaerts, Jasper
1913 The Journal of Jasper Danckaerts (1679-1680),
ed. by B. B. James and J. F. Jameson.
Barnes and Noble, New York.

D' Avity; Pierre
1646 Newe archontologia cosmica. 
Wolfgang Hoffman, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

De Caus, Salomon
1980 Hortus Palatinus: die Entwurfe zum
Heidelberger Schlossgarten von Salomon de
Caus. (2 vols.) Reprint of Hortus Palatinus
a Friderico rege Boemiaeelectore Palatino
Heidelbergae extructus, 1620 
Grune Reihe, Worms, Germany.

De Jong, Erik
1990 For Profit and Ornament: The Function
and Meaning of Dutch Garden Art in the
Period of William and Mary, 1650-1702. 
In The Dutch Garden in the Seventeenth Century.
Dunbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC

De Vries, Hans Vredeman
1980 Hortorum viridariorumque elegantes et multiplicis
formae. Reprint of 1583 with additional
sheets from 1587. 
Van Hoeve, Amsterdam.

Fuchs, Leonhart
2001 The New Herbal of 1543. Taschen, Cologne,
Germany.
Northeast Historical Archaeology/Vol. 34, 2005. 75

Hopper, Florence
1982 The Dutch Classical Garden and Andre
Mollet. Journal of Garden History 2(1):'
25-40.

Hunt, John Dixon
1990 "But who does not know what a Dutch
garden is?": The Dutch Garden in the
English Imagination. in 
The Dutch Garden in the Seventeenth Century 
Dunbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 
Washington, DC

Hunt, John Dixon, and Erik de Jong, eds.
1988 The Anglo-Dutch Garden in the Age of William and Mary. 
Journal of Garden History 8(2, 3), April-September 
Taylor & Francis, London.

Jellicoe, Geoffrey, and Susan Jellicoe, eds.
1986 The Oxford' Companion to Gardens. Oxford' "
University Press, New York.

Kuyper, W.
1980 Dutch Classicist Architecture. Delft
University Press, Delft.

Lauremberg, Peter.
1631 Horticu/tura, libris II.comprehensa; huic
nostro coe/o & solo accommodata; regulis,
observationibus, experiment is, & figuris navis
instructa: In qua quicquid ad liortum proficue
colendum, et eleganter instruendum facit,
explicatur. Matthaus Merian, Frankfurt am
Main, Germany

Nylandt, Peter
1682 De Nederlandtse herbarius of kruydt-boeck.
Reprint, 1976. Interbook International,
Schiedain, the Netherlands.

1683 De medicijn-winckel, of ervaren huys-houder.
Included in Part 3 of Het vermakdyck landtleven.
Gysbert de Groot, Amsterdam.

Schama, Simon
1987 The Embarrassment of Riches: An
Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden
Age. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Temple, Sir Richard Carnac, ed.
1925 The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and
Asia: 1608-1647. Volume IV of Travels in
Europe: 1639-1647. Hakluyt Society,
London.

Van de Passe, Crispin
1928 Hortus Floridus: The First book contayninge a
very lively and true Description of the Flowers
of the Spring. Reprint of ca. 1614 English
translation. The Cresset Press, London.

Van der Groen, Jan
1669 Le jardinier hollandois/der niederlandische
gartner. Marcus Doornick, Amsterdam.

1670
Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier. Marcus
Doornick, Amsterdam.

1683
Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier. Part I of Het
7Jermllkelijck landt-leven. Gysbcrt de Groot,
Amsterdam.

Friday, June 15, 2018

Gardeners Taking the Pots to the Garden 1682

1682 Arranging pot plants in the Spring Garden garden. 'Georgica Curiosa' by Wolf Helmhardt von Hohberg

Thursday, June 14, 2018

Real & Imaginary Garden Celebrations - Attr to Louis de Caullery 1555-1622

Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) Promenading in a Garden Park Setting

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Wednesday, June 13, 2018

Tuesday, June 12, 2018

17C Dutch Gardens by Jan van der Groen (1635-1671)

1670 Jan van der Groen's (1635-1671) Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier from www.biolib.de 5870.  

In 17C England, the relationship between man & nature was evolving, as Francis Bacon (1561-1626) promoted man as "the minister & interpreter of Nature."  The 17C Dutch property owner believed that it was his religious duty to order God's creation - Nature untamed.  Improving, clipping, trimming, & geometrically ordering Nature was morally righteous. God's improved garden must become a balance of beauty & utility. This view of Nature perfected was promoted in gardening manuals, such as 1669 De Nederlandtsen Hovenier by Jan van der Groen (1635-1671), the gardener of Orange. It was man's responsibility to see that God's gift should be "dressed up. made fine, in good order, elegant & pleasurable." The book functioned as a manual & a visual source of information on "Dutch Classic Garden Architecture."  The typical 17C Dutch design pattern has the house standing at the end of an imaginary axis, which divides a rectangular piece of land into two halves. If possible, the rectangle has ideal dimensions, length & width as four to three. Generally, the whole is enclosed by trees, but it may also be surrounded by a canal system. In this perfection of God's undisciplined Nature, the rectangle itself is again divided into square gardens, usually decorated with French foliage & Italian flowers. In this garden may be mazes, deciduous walks & deciduous giants. Walks guide along artfully constructed trellises, & there are also low fruit trees in diagonal rows intermingled with berries & grapes. Box hedges often surround low ornamental vegetation. There are also flower beds with pots on tiles. The geometric practical kitchen garden, a square or rectangle, was divided into equal parts by crossing paths. Roots, salad plants, & aromatic & medicinal herbs filled the beds. Useful herbs were part of another important component of Dutch garden design. In addition to their beauty & recreational uses, gardens also had to be practical & productive, providing fruits, vegetables, & herbs. Van der Groen insisted that these gardens should be profitable, healthful, pleasurable, & salutary. The oak, maple, & ash trees provided shade for the walkways & wood for warmth & building.  The garden's decorative water could also serve as a pond for edible fish & irrigation for the growing plants. 

See

Crisp, Frank
1924 Mediieval Gardens. (Two vols.) 
John Lane, London.

Culpeper, Nicholas
1990 Culpeper's Complete Herbal and English Physician Enlarged. 
(Reprint of 1814 edition.)
Meyerbooks, Glenwood, Illinois.

Danckaerts, Jasper
1913 The Journal of Jasper Danckaerts (1679-1680),
ed. by B. B. James and J. F. Jameson.
Barnes and Noble, New York.

D' Avity; Pierre
1646 Newe archontologia cosmica. 
Wolfgang Hoffman, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

De Caus, Salomon
1980 Hortus Palatinus: die Entwurfe zum
Heidelberger Schlossgarten von Salomon de
Caus. (2 vols.) Reprint of Hortus Palatinus
a Friderico rege Boemiaeelectore Palatino
Heidelbergae extructus, 1620 
Grune Reihe, Worms, Germany.

De Jong, Erik
1990 For Profit and Ornament: The Function
and Meaning of Dutch Garden Art in the
Period of William and Mary, 1650-1702. 
In The Dutch Garden in the Seventeenth Century.
Dunbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC

De Vries, Hans Vredeman
1980 Hortorum viridariorumque elegantes et multiplicis
formae. Reprint of 1583 with additional
sheets from 1587. 
Van Hoeve, Amsterdam.

Fuchs, Leonhart
2001 The New Herbal of 1543. Taschen, Cologne,
Germany.
Northeast Historical Archaeology/Vol. 34, 2005. 75

Hopper, Florence
1982 The Dutch Classical Garden and Andre
Mollet. Journal of Garden History 2(1):'
25-40.

Hunt, John Dixon
1990 "But who does not know what a Dutch
garden is?": The Dutch Garden in the
English Imagination. in 
The Dutch Garden in the Seventeenth Century 
Dunbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 
Washington, DC

Hunt, John Dixon, and Erik de Jong, eds.
1988 The Anglo-Dutch Garden in the Age of William and Mary. 
Journal of Garden History 8(2, 3), April-September 
Taylor & Francis, London.

Jellicoe, Geoffrey, and Susan Jellicoe, eds.
1986 The Oxford' Companion to Gardens. Oxford' "
University Press, New York.

Kuyper, W.
1980 Dutch Classicist Architecture. Delft
University Press, Delft.

Lauremberg, Peter.
1631 Horticu/tura, libris II.comprehensa; huic
nostro coe/o & solo accommodata; regulis,
observationibus, experiment is, & figuris navis
instructa: In qua quicquid ad liortum proficue
colendum, et eleganter instruendum facit,
explicatur. Matthaus Merian, Frankfurt am
Main, Germany

Nylandt, Peter
1682 De Nederlandtse herbarius of kruydt-boeck.
Reprint, 1976. Interbook International,
Schiedain, the Netherlands.

1683 De medicijn-winckel, of ervaren huys-houder.
Included in Part 3 of Het vermakdyck landtleven.
Gysbert de Groot, Amsterdam.

Schama, Simon
1987 The Embarrassment of Riches: An
Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden
Age. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Temple, Sir Richard Carnac, ed.
1925 The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and
Asia: 1608-1647. Volume IV of Travels in
Europe: 1639-1647. Hakluyt Society,
London.

Van de Passe, Crispin
1928 Hortus Floridus: The First book contayninge a
very lively and true Description of the Flowers
of the Spring. Reprint of ca. 1614 English
translation. The Cresset Press, London.

Van der Groen, Jan
1669 Le jardinier hollandois/der niederlandische
gartner. Marcus Doornick, Amsterdam.

1670
Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier. Marcus
Doornick, Amsterdam.

1683
Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier. Part I of Het
7Jermllkelijck landt-leven. Gysbcrt de Groot,
Amsterdam.

Monday, June 11, 2018

Gardener Working on Irrigation 1649

1649 The English Improver Improved Or the Survey of Husbandry Surveyed. by Walter Blith

Saturday, June 9, 2018

Real & Imaginary Garden Celebrations - Attr to Louis de Caullery 1555-1622

Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) Dining in a Garden

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Friday, June 8, 2018

Gardeners Preparing an Orchard 1618


1618 William Lawson A New Orchard And Garden or, The best way for planting, grafting, and to make any ground good, for a rich Orchard Particularly in the North and generall 

Thursday, June 7, 2018

17C Dutch Gardens by Jan van der Groen (1635-1671)

1670 Jan van der Groen's (1635-1671) Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier from www.biolib.de 6022.  

In 17C England, the relationship between man & nature was evolving, as Francis Bacon (1561-1626) promoted man as "the minister & interpreter of Nature."  The 17C Dutch property owner believed that it was his religious duty to order God's creation - Nature untamed.  Improving, clipping, trimming, & geometrically ordering Nature was morally righteous. God's improved garden must become a balance of beauty & utility. This view of Nature perfected was promoted in gardening manuals, such as 1669 De Nederlandtsen Hovenier by Jan van der Groen (1635-1671), the gardener of Orange. It was man's responsibility to see that God's gift should be "dressed up. made fine, in good order, elegant & pleasurable." The book functioned as a manual & a visual source of information on "Dutch Classic Garden Architecture."  The typical 17C Dutch design pattern has the house standing at the end of an imaginary axis, which divides a rectangular piece of land into two halves. If possible, the rectangle has ideal dimensions, length & width as four to three. Generally, the whole is enclosed by trees, but it may also be surrounded by a canal system. In this perfection of God's undisciplined Nature, the rectangle itself is again divided into square gardens, usually decorated with French foliage & Italian flowers. In this garden may be mazes, deciduous walks & deciduous giants. Walks guide along artfully constructed trellises, & there are also low fruit trees in diagonal rows intermingled with berries & grapes. Box hedges often surround low ornamental vegetation. There are also flower beds with pots on tiles. The geometric practical kitchen garden, a square or rectangle, was divided into equal parts by crossing paths. Roots, salad plants, & aromatic & medicinal herbs filled the beds. Useful herbs were part of another important component of Dutch garden design. In addition to their beauty & recreational uses, gardens also had to be practical & productive, providing fruits, vegetables, & herbs. Van der Groen insisted that these gardens should be profitable, healthful, pleasurable, & salutary. The oak, maple, & ash trees provided shade for the walkways & wood for warmth & building.  The garden's decorative water could also serve as a pond for edible fish & irrigation for the growing plants. 

See

Crisp, Frank
1924 Mediieval Gardens. (Two vols.) 
John Lane, London.

Culpeper, Nicholas
1990 Culpeper's Complete Herbal and English Physician Enlarged. 
(Reprint of 1814 edition.)
Meyerbooks, Glenwood, Illinois.

Danckaerts, Jasper
1913 The Journal of Jasper Danckaerts (1679-1680),
ed. by B. B. James and J. F. Jameson.
Barnes and Noble, New York.

D' Avity; Pierre
1646 Newe archontologia cosmica. 
Wolfgang Hoffman, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

De Caus, Salomon
1980 Hortus Palatinus: die Entwurfe zum
Heidelberger Schlossgarten von Salomon de
Caus. (2 vols.) Reprint of Hortus Palatinus
a Friderico rege Boemiaeelectore Palatino
Heidelbergae extructus, 1620 
Grune Reihe, Worms, Germany.

De Jong, Erik
1990 For Profit and Ornament: The Function
and Meaning of Dutch Garden Art in the
Period of William and Mary, 1650-1702. 
In The Dutch Garden in the Seventeenth Century.
Dunbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC

De Vries, Hans Vredeman
1980 Hortorum viridariorumque elegantes et multiplicis
formae. Reprint of 1583 with additional
sheets from 1587. 
Van Hoeve, Amsterdam.

Fuchs, Leonhart
2001 The New Herbal of 1543. Taschen, Cologne,
Germany.
Northeast Historical Archaeology/Vol. 34, 2005. 75

Hopper, Florence
1982 The Dutch Classical Garden and Andre
Mollet. Journal of Garden History 2(1):'
25-40.

Hunt, John Dixon
1990 "But who does not know what a Dutch
garden is?": The Dutch Garden in the
English Imagination. in 
The Dutch Garden in the Seventeenth Century 
Dunbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 
Washington, DC

Hunt, John Dixon, and Erik de Jong, eds.
1988 The Anglo-Dutch Garden in the Age of William and Mary. 
Journal of Garden History 8(2, 3), April-September 
Taylor & Francis, London.

Jellicoe, Geoffrey, and Susan Jellicoe, eds.
1986 The Oxford' Companion to Gardens. Oxford' "
University Press, New York.

Kuyper, W.
1980 Dutch Classicist Architecture. Delft
University Press, Delft.

Lauremberg, Peter.
1631 Horticu/tura, libris II.comprehensa; huic
nostro coe/o & solo accommodata; regulis,
observationibus, experiment is, & figuris navis
instructa: In qua quicquid ad liortum proficue
colendum, et eleganter instruendum facit,
explicatur. Matthaus Merian, Frankfurt am
Main, Germany

Nylandt, Peter
1682 De Nederlandtse herbarius of kruydt-boeck.
Reprint, 1976. Interbook International,
Schiedain, the Netherlands.

1683 De medicijn-winckel, of ervaren huys-houder.
Included in Part 3 of Het vermakdyck landtleven.
Gysbert de Groot, Amsterdam.

Schama, Simon
1987 The Embarrassment of Riches: An
Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden
Age. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Temple, Sir Richard Carnac, ed.
1925 The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and
Asia: 1608-1647. Volume IV of Travels in
Europe: 1639-1647. Hakluyt Society,
London.

Van de Passe, Crispin
1928 Hortus Floridus: The First book contayninge a
very lively and true Description of the Flowers
of the Spring. Reprint of ca. 1614 English
translation. The Cresset Press, London.

Van der Groen, Jan
1669 Le jardinier hollandois/der niederlandische
gartner. Marcus Doornick, Amsterdam.

1670
Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier. Marcus
Doornick, Amsterdam.

1683
Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier. Part I of Het
7Jermllkelijck landt-leven. Gysbcrt de Groot,
Amsterdam.

Wednesday, June 6, 2018

March 1609 - Gardeners Preparing Garden

1609 Twelve months March print Jacques Callot (Print made by) Adriaen Collaert (After) Joos de Momper 

Tuesday, June 5, 2018

Gardeners Working - Planting trees 1682

Frontispiece Planting the orange tree Frans Ertinger after Charles Emmanuel Biset Etching from Frans van Sterbeeck (1631-1693) Citricultura Antwerp J. Jacops, 1682

Monday, June 4, 2018

Real & Imaginary Garden Celebrations - Attr to Louis de Caullery 1555-1622

Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) In the Gardens at The Escorial, near Madrid, Spain. Note: Few, if any, women are depicted on the lower level immediately in front of the entrance to The Escorial, and few are on the upper level.

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Sunday, June 3, 2018

Saturday, June 2, 2018

17C Dutch Gardens by Jan van der Groen (1635-1671)

1670 Jan van der Groen's (1635-1671) Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier from www.biolib.de 6020.  Jan van der Groen (1635-1671), the gardener of Orange, wrote in 1669 "Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier." The book functioned as a manual & a visual source of information on "Dutch Classic Garden Architecture."  The pattern has the house standing at the end of an imaginary axis, which divides a rectangular piece of land into two halves. If possible, the rectangle has ideal dimensions, length & width as four to three. The whole is enclosed by trees, but may also be surrounded by a canal system. The rectangle itself is again divided into square gardens, usually decorated with French foliage & Italian flower beds. In this garden may be mazes, deciduous walks & deciduous giants. Walks guide along artfully constructed trellises, & there are also low fruit trees in diagonal rows intermingled with berries & grapes. Box hedges often surround low ornamental vegetation. There are also flower beds with pots on tiles. The geometric practical kitchen garden, a square or rectangle, was divided into equal parts by crossing paths. Roots, salad plants, & aromatic & medicinal herbs filled the beds.