Saturday, March 31, 2018

Terraced Garden attributed to Lodewijk Toeput, called Ludovico Pozzoserrato (1550-1605)

Lodewijk Toeput (1550-1605) called Lodovico Pozzoserrato Garden at a Venician Villa c 1580.  Lodewijk Toeput, called il Pozzoserrato (c 1550-1603-05) was a Flemish landscape painter and draftsman active in Italy. In Antwerp he is believed to have studied with Maerten de Vos, a leading history painter who had studied in Italy.  He is mainly known for his canvases and frescoes of landscapes and formal gardens with banquets and music-making groups.  Toeput painted various elegant gardens with figures engaging in courtly love or concerts. Many of his garden scenes were likely inspired by contemporary Flemish garden prints. 

Friday, March 30, 2018

Real & Imaginary Garden Celebrations - Attr to Louis de Caullery 1555-1622

Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) Walking on a Hardscape Terrace.  Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective. Gardens composed of hardscape materials were surely easier to maintain due to less labor costs & the whims of pesky Mother Nature.

Thursday, March 29, 2018

1530 Verona Garden

1530 Veronese School,  A classical architectural garden with elegant figures, a mountainous landscape beyond

Wednesday, March 28, 2018

Popular Garden attributed to Lodewijk Toeput, called Ludovico Pozzoserrato (1550-1605)

Attributed to Lodewijk Toeput, called Ludovico Pozzoserrato (1550-1605) Scène de chasse & Scène de réjouissances dans un jardin italien.  Lodewijk Toeput, called il Pozzoserrato (c 1550-1603-05) was a Flemish landscape painter and draftsman active in Italy. In Antwerp he is believed to have studied with Maerten de Vos, a leading history painter who had studied in Italy.  He is mainly known for his canvases and frescoes of landscapes and formal gardens with banquets and music-making groups.  Toeput painted various elegant gardens with figures engaging in courtly love or concerts. Many of his garden scenes were likely inspired by contemporary Flemish garden prints. 

Tuesday, March 27, 2018

Sewing in the Garden - Illuminated Manuscript 1613

Ladies in a garden doing crafts, mostly needle-crafts such as embroidering - Album Amicorum of Gervasius Fabricius (1603-1637), f.50 - BL Add MS 17025.  Album Amicorum of Gervasius Fabricius of Salzburg, dated 1613, shows a number of women doing different crafts in a garden. The woman on the left (next to the woman with the dog) is working on bobbin lace on a pillow resting on a stand. The craft might also be Punto in Aria, an Italian needlepoint.

William Shakespeare wrote Twelfth Night around 1601-02, with its first recorded performance is in 1602. In this play, Duke Orsino says:

O, fellow, come, the song we had last night.
Mark it, Cesario, it is old and plain;
The spinsters and the knitters in the sun
And the free maids that weave their thread with bones
Do use to chant it: it is silly sooth,
And dallies with the innocence of love,
Like the old age.

Weave their thread with bones is an early reference to bobbin lace. Small bones were used then to wind the thread round. Bobbin lace is essentially weaving, with the pins creating gaps to form the patterns. An early term  for bobbin lace was bonelace. 

Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes, was published in 2 volumes, in 1605 & 1615. This quote from a translation by John Ormsby from Chapter 70, "...I came to the gate, where some dozen or so of devils were playing tennis, all in breeches and doublets, with falling collars trimmed with Flemish bonelace, and ruffles of the same that served them for wristbands..."

Monday, March 26, 2018

16C Grand Tour of Towns & Landscapes - London

Georg Braun (1541-1622) & Frans Hogenberg (1535–1590) German topo-geographers.  London

These images of British, European, & Middle Eastern towns come from the century BEFORE The Grand Tour became a popular educational trip for the rich & the intellectually curious of Britain & the European continent.  The custom flourished from about 1660, until the advent of wide-spread railroad travel in the 1840s, when travel became accessible to a larger spectrum of the public. Similar trips across the Atlantic were undertaken from the 2nd half of the 18C, by some affluent South & North Americans.

Sunday, March 25, 2018

Northern European Gardens by Pieter van der Borcht (Flemish-born Dutch artist, 1540-1608)

Susanna in bad, Pieter van der Borcht (Flemish artist, 1540-1608). A few of Pieter van der Borcht's images include formal gardens. Probably these are composites of gardens he had seen in his birthplace of Mechelen & Antwerp, where his family fled from the Spanish troops. He never left Antwerp creating works featuring traditional genre, history, & Biblical subjects.  His works include biblical & mythological subjects, genre scenes, pictures depicting the months, a few gardens, & many botanical illustrations.  He is regarded as one of the most gifted botanical painters of the 16C.



Saturday, March 24, 2018

Italian Garden Maze attributed to Lodewijk Toeput, called Ludovico Pozzoserrato (1550-1605)

Attributed to Lodewijk Toeput, called Ludovico Pozzoserrato (1550-1605) Pleasure Garden with a Maze, c 1579-84. Lodewijk Toeput, called il Pozzoserrato (c 1550-1603-05) was a Flemish landscape painter and draftsman active in Italy. In Antwerp he is believed to have studied with Maerten de Vos, a leading history painter who had studied in Italy.  He is mainly known for his canvases and frescoes of landscapes and formal gardens with banquets and music-making groups.  Toeput painted various elegant gardens with figures engaging in courtly love or concerts. Many of his garden scenes were likely inspired by contemporary Flemish prints. For instance, his Pleasure garden with a maze (Hampton Court Palace) was likely inspired by the Garden with Labyrinth by Hans Vredeman de Vries and Party in a Garden, both engraved by Pieter van der Borcht the Elder. 

A hedge maze is an outdoor garden maze or labyrinth in which the "walls" or dividers between passages are made of vertical hedges. Hedge mazes evolved from the knot gardens of Renaissance Europe. Early garden mazes began to appear in the 16C. These initial mazes were constructed from evergreen herbs, but, over time, box became a more popular option due to its robustness. Italian architects had been sketching conceptual garden labyrinths as early as 1460, and hundreds of mazes were constructed in Europe between the 16C-18C.  Initially, the hedge maze was not intended to confuse, but to provide a unicursal walking path. Puzzle-like hedge mazes featuring dead ends and tall hedges arrived in England during the reign of King William III of England. It was possible to get lost in the much-admired labyrinth of Versailles, built for Louis XIV of France in 1677 and destroyed in 1778. This maze was adorned with 39 hydraulic sculpture groups depicting Aesop's fables. The oldest surviving puzzle hedge maze, at Hampton Court Palace in Surrey, England, was built for King William in the late 17C. Its distinctive trapezoidal shape is due to pre-existing garden paths running alongside the maze.

Thursday, March 22, 2018

16C & 17C Prints of The Four Seasons

Lots & lots of seasonal Garden & Cultural Landscape information in each of these...
Four Seasons Georg Pencz (German artist, 1500-1550)


Four Seasons  Martin de Vos (1531-1603)


 Four Seasons Antonio Tempesta (Italian artist, 1555–1630


 Four Seasons Jan van de Velde the younger (Dutch artist, 1593-1641)


 1640S Four Seasons Nicolas de Bruyn (1571-1652) after Martin de Vos (1531-1603)


 Four Seasons  Ferdinand Bol (1616-80)


 Four Seasons Jan Sadeler, the Elder, Flemish ( c. 1550-1600) After Jacopo Bassano the Elder, Italian (Bassano del Grappa, Italy 1510-1592 )

Tuesday, March 20, 2018

16C Grand Tour of Towns & Landscapes - Cambridge

Georg Braun (1541-1622) & Frans Hogenberg (1535–1590) German topo-geographers Cambridge dated 1575.

I love the decorative & practical landscape elements visible in these maps.  These images of British, European, & Middle Eastern towns come from the century BEFORE The Grand Tour became a popular educational trip for the rich & the intellectually curious of Britain & the European continent.  The custom flourished from about 1660, until the advent of wide-spread railroad travel in the 1840s, when travel became accessible to a larger spectrum of the public. Similar trips across the Atlantic were undertaken from the 2nd half of the 18C, by some affluent South & North Americans.

Monday, March 19, 2018

16C Grand Tour of Towns & Landscapes - Azemmour

Georg Braun (1541-1622) & Frans Hogenberg (1535–1590) German topo-geographers. Azemmour or Azamor is a Moroccan city, on the Oum Er-Rbia River, 75 km southwest of Casablanca.

These images of British, European, & Middle Eastern towns come from the century BEFORE The Grand Tour became a popular educational trip for the rich & the intellectually curious of Britain & the European continent.  The custom flourished from about 1660, until the advent of wide-spread railroad travel in the 1840s, when travel became accessible to a larger spectrum of the public. Similar trips across the Atlantic were undertaken from the 2nd half of the 18C, by some affluent South & North Americans.

Sunday, March 18, 2018

The 17C Family Portrayed Outdoors in front of the Formal Garden

The Renaissance, from the 14-17C, marked a turning point in portraiture. Renaissance artists began to paint secular scenes, breaking away from the dominant religious art of medieval painters. Partly out of interest in the natural world & partly out of nostalgia for classical Greece & Rome, portraits became valued as symbolic & allegorical objects & as depictions of earthly success & status. The period in Europe was the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages & modern history. The relationship between man & nature was evolving as Francis Bacon (1561-1626) promoted man as "the minister & interpreter of nature." Portraits began to depict the wealthy & the middle class in natural landscapes & in more formal garden settings, where man was obviously controlling the nature around him.  Thus, the Renaissance garden became as much as symbol of the owner's wealth & culture as his house or art collection.

1745 copy of 1625 original by Cornelis Janssens van Ceulen (British artist, 1593-1661) The Capel Family pose safely on a draped terrace with their complicated garden in the background. Arthur Capel 1st Baron Capel of Hadham,his wife, Elizabeth Morrison and their children, Mary, Henry, Charles, Elizabeth and Arthur. In 1632, Hadham Hall was inherited by Arthur Capel, who made many additions and alterations to the property. These included the building of a Banqueting Hall that fully enclosed the courtyard to form a quadrangle, and an Italian garden. This he embellished with four fountains, classical statues, and a large terrace overlooking the deer park and woods. 

This painting is a c 1745 copy of a larger 1625 original. It is thought that the this copy was made for one of the daughters in the painting, Bridget. She was married & would have taken this painting with her, when she moved to her husband's house, Croxteth Hall, Liverpool. The "original" still hangs at Charlecote Park in Warwickshire, the ancestral home of the Lucy family. The painting shows Sir Thomas & his wife, Alice, with 7 of their 13 children. The 2 boys at the front of the painting are wearing petticoats. This was usual for the time, when boys were not "breeched;" until they were aged between 4-7. Their their bodices (top of their dress) are like their father's doublet (his short, tight jacket), not like their mother's dress. The baby at the back of the picture is probably a boy whose clothes are made from the same material as the brothers' clothes. The eldest boy on the left, Spencer Lucy, is probably between 10 & 13 years of age. At the time boys of this age were dressed as young adults rather than as children. The faces of the family would have been painted from individual studies. The clothing may have been arranged on a dummy or another stand-in figure. This would have meant that the family, & in particular the children, would not have had to sit for any uncomfortable length of time. 

Saturday, March 17, 2018

The 17C Family Portrayed Outdoors in front of the Formal Garden

The Renaissance, from the 14-17C, marked a turning point in portraiture. Renaissance artists began to paint secular scenes, breaking away from the dominant religious art of medieval painters. Partly out of interest in the natural world & partly out of nostalgia for classical Greece & Rome, portraits became valued as symbolic & allegorical objects & as depictions of earthly success & status. The period in Europe was the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages & modern history. The relationship between man & nature was evolving as Francis Bacon (1561-1626) promoted man as "the minister & interpreter of nature." Portraits began to depict the wealthy & the middle class in natural landscapes & in more formal garden settings, where man was obviously controlling the nature around him.   As time passed, the Renaissance garden became as much as symbol of the owner's wealth & culture as his house, his clothes, or his art collection.

1625 Cornelius Johnson (1593-1661)  Portrait of Sir Thomas Lucy and his Family at Charlecote Park, Warwickshire. England.  The 1st Sir Thomas Lucy is said to have planted the great double avenue of limes which still stretches away from the house to the south west. The rough split-oak palings that surround the parkland are of a type thought to have first been put up in Elizabethan times. In the 1670s a formal water garden was established, comprising geometric parterres & two ponds in which to breed carp. The garden was lovingly completed by Colonel George Lucy between 1695 & 1700. How long the garden was maintained in this immaculate state is unclear, but by the middle of the 18C it would have seemed terribly old-fashioned.
Around 1750 the young ‘Capability’ Brown was called in to advise on the garden at Packington, some 20 miles away, & a rough outline drawing of Charlecote’s house & garden appears on the back of one of his designs for Packington. However, it was not until 1757, that Mr Brown came to Charlecote to create a new cascade where the little river Dene met the Avon in the parkland. Three years after building the cascade "Bachelor" George Lucy made the following agreement with Brown:
Article 1. to widen the River Avon
Article 2. to sink the fosse (ha-ha) round the meadow, to make a sufficient fence against the deer
Article 3. to fill up all the ponds on the north front of the house, to alter the slopes & give the whole a natural, easy & corresponding level with the house on every side
Once the unfashionable water garden had been filled in, Brown created a raised lawn & planted it with the cedars of Lebanon.

Friday, March 16, 2018

The 17C Family Portrayed Outdoors by the Garden Parkland

The Renaissance, from the 14-17C, marked a turning point in portraiture. Renaissance artists began to paint secular scenes, breaking away from the dominant religious art of medieval painters. Partly out of interest in the natural world & partly out of nostalgia for classical Greece & Rome, portraits became valued as symbolic & allegorical objects & as depictions of earthly success & status. The period in Europe was the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages & modern history. The relationship between man & nature was evolving as Francis Bacon (1561-1626) promoted man as "the minister & interpreter of nature." Portraits began to depict the wealthy & the middle class in natural landscapes & in more formal garden settings, where man was obviously controlling the nature around him.

 1630 Cornelis de Vos (Flemish painter, c 1584-1651) Family Group in Landscape with a garden fountain in the background. 1630s Cornelis de Vos (Flemish painter, c 1584-1651) Family Portrait Seated on a Garden Terrace.  Cornelis De Vos was most successful as a painter of individual & group portraits. After the departure of Antony van Dyck (1599-1641) for England in 1621, & Peter Paul Rubens' (1577-1640) absences from Antwerp on diplomatic & artistic missions, de Vos became the leading portraitist of the Antwerp haute-bourgeois & patrician society. He only commenced painting full-length portraits after Anthony van Dyck's return to Antwerp in 1627. In these portraits the figures are typically placed in front of architecture & an open landscape or garden.

Thursday, March 15, 2018

The 17C Family Portrayed Outdoors in front of the Formal Garden

The Renaissance, from the 14-17C, marked a turning point in portraiture. Renaissance artists began to paint secular scenes, breaking away from the dominant religious art of medieval painters. Partly out of interest in the natural world & partly out of nostalgia for classical Greece & Rome, portraits became valued as symbolic & allegorical objects & as depictions of earthly success & status. The period in Europe was the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages & modern history. The relationship between man & nature was evolving as Francis Bacon (1561-1626) promoted man as "the minister & interpreter of nature." Portraits began to depict the wealthy & the middle class in natural landscapes & in more formal garden settings, where man was obviously controlling the nature around him.   As time passed, the Renaissance garden became as much as symbol of the owner's wealth & culture as his house, his clothes, or his art collection.
Cornelis de Vos (Flemish painter, c 1584-1651)  Nobleman and 3 Children with formal garden beds in the background.  1630s Cornelis de Vos (Flemish painter, c 1584-1651) Family Portrait Seated on a Garden Terrace.  Cornelis De Vos was most successful as a painter of individual & group portraits. After the departure of Antony van Dyck (1599-1641) for England in 1621, & Peter Paul Rubens' (1577-1640) absences from Antwerp on diplomatic & artistic missions, de Vos became the leading portraitist of the Antwerp haute-bourgeois & patrician society. He only commenced painting full-length portraits after Anthony van Dyck's return to Antwerp in 1627. In these portraits the figures are typically placed in front of architecture & an open landscape or garden.

Wednesday, March 14, 2018

The 17C Family Portrayed Nearly Outdoors on the Garden Terrace

The Renaissance, from the 14-17C, marked a turning point in portraiture. Renaissance artists began to paint secular scenes, breaking away from the dominant religious art of medieval painters. Partly out of interest in the natural world & partly out of nostalgia for classical Greece & Rome, portraits became valued as symbolic & allegorical objects & as depictions of earthly success & status. The period in Europe was the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages & modern history. The relationship between man & nature was evolving as Francis Bacon (1561-1626) promoted man as "the minister & interpreter of nature." Portraits began to depict the wealthy & the middle class in natural landscapes & in more formal garden settings, where man was obviously controlling the nature around him.  As time passed, the Renaissance garden became as much as symbol of the owner's wealth & culture as his house, his clothes, or his art collection.

1627 Family portrait by Cornelis de Vos (Flemish painter, c 1584-1651) Nature boldly intrudes into this portrait.  1630s Cornelis de Vos (Flemish painter, c 1584-1651) Family Portrait Seated on a Garden Terrace.  Cornelis De Vos was most successful as a painter of individual & group portraits. After the departure of Antony van Dyck (1599-1641) for England in 1621, & Peter Paul Rubens' (1577-1640) absences from Antwerp on diplomatic & artistic missions, de Vos became the leading portraitist of the Antwerp haute-bourgeois & patrician society. He only commenced painting full-length portraits after Anthony van Dyck's return to Antwerp in 1627. In these portraits the figures are typically placed in front of architecture & an open landscape or garden.

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

17C Gardens in Portraits of Children from Europe

 1599 attr Gortzius Geldorp (Dutch painter, 1553–1618) Portrait of a Girl aged 4, dated 1599
 1599 attr Gortzius Geldorp (Dutch painter, 1553–1618)  Portrait of a Girl aged 4, dated 1599

Monday, March 12, 2018

Sunday, March 11, 2018

16C Landscapes of "Family Trees" The Spalatin Chronicle under Lucas Cranach the Elder (German, 1472–1553)

The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (1463–1525), Frederick the Wise, was the protector of Martin Luther, whom he offered asylum in his castle Wartburg.  Frederick III also asked his chief secretary George Burkhardt (known as George Spalatin), to compile a history of the German regions of Saxony & Thuringia.  Spalatin created a family history for the rulers of the various regions depicted as family tree miniatures decorated with family crests (The Spalatin Chronicle Family Trees), painted by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553).  Cranach & his workshop also painted many full-sized portraits of Frederick the Wise in the years after his death.
Frederick III (1463–1525), the Wise, Elector of Saxony, attr to Lucas Cranach the Elder (German, 1472–1553) or to his workshop. The label of this painting at the Metropolitan Museum of Art reads, "This panel and the portrait of John the Steadfast, the sitter's brother, are one of at least sixty pairs of portraits of his father and uncle ordered by John Frederick the Magnanimous from Cranach when he became Elector in 1532. All three rulers were Cranach's patrons at Wittenberg. So extensive a commission would undoubtedly have been executed mainly by workshop assistants." The portrait of Frederick's brother follows.
John I (1468–1532), the Steadfast, Elector of Saxony. Workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German artist, 1472–1553)
Another of the paintings of Frederick III (1463–1525), the Wise, Elector of Saxony, attr to Lucas Cranach the Elder (German, 1472–1553) or to his workshop.

Saturday, March 10, 2018

1515 Pruning Vines

1515 Da Costa Hours, in Latin Illuminated by Simon Bening (1484–1561) Belgium, Bruges, c Pruning Vines