Monday, December 31, 2018

1600s Garden

Isaak de Moucheron (Dutch, 1667-1744) Garden terrace and lake with pilaster and sphinx fountains on either side, a woman filling an urn from one, a chateau on the opposite side of the lake

Saturday, December 29, 2018

1600s Garden

Pieter Schenk (Dutch artist, 1660 - 1718-19) Views of Berlin and Cleves  Hortus Electoralis Berolinii

Friday, December 28, 2018

Thursday, December 27, 2018

1600s Garden

Isaak de Moucheron (Dutch, 1667-1744) Garden terrace and lake with columns, and 2 hounds in the foreground classical figures at left, two figures in a punt on an ornamental lake behind with avenues of trees beyond

Wednesday, December 26, 2018

Tuesday, December 25, 2018

1662 The Earliest known Bird’s-Eye Painting of a British Garden

A detail from View of Llanerch Park in Denbighshire, Wales. 1662

The Guardian, London, Monday 10 November 2014 written by Maev Kennedy

"The earliest known bird’s-eye painting of a British garden is expected to fetch up to £600,000 when goes for auction next month.

"The painting of a lost Welsh garden has remained in the same family since the owner commissioned the artwork in 1665 of his fountains, pools, waterfall, avenues, statues, terraced lawns and walled fruit gardens.

"The garden was the pride and joy Mutton Davies, who was inspired by his trip to Italy between 1654 and 1658 to create a state of the then art Italian garden around a much older house in north Wales.

"Davies commissioned the painting of his creation, meticulously detailed down to the mounting block by the stables and the fountains designed to spurt water from unexpected places and drench the unwary.

"A 17th-century poem described the garden in its glory: “Elegantly he diverted streams of cold water into his gardens and, praise be, he can wander in a great garden which he made, in the grounds about his mansion, and costly are his devices.”

"The artist is anonymous, but believed to be English.

"Julian Gascoigne, a specialist at Sotheby’s, which is auctioning the painting: “There are much more accomplished later views of gardens like Hampton Court, by more sophisticated artists who often came from the continent. This is really very early and a very large and ambitious painting – and the artist is clearly having a few problems with the perspective – but we believe it to be the earliest by a native painter, so it is really quite an important thing...Its also completely delightful, there are more details to spot and take pleasure in every time you look at it.”

"Parts of the much-altered hall survive, but the garden as lovingly immortalised by the artist has long since gone, with most of the land taken up by later planting, buildings and a golf course, though it is listed as of historic importance to preserve paths and other structures buried under the turf.

"The painting will go on display at Sotheby’s in London before the sale on 3 December 2014."

Sotheby's Catalogue Note for the painting:

Painted in 1662, this is likely the earliest topographical birds-eye view of a British estate, a genre that would become hugely popular over the ensuing decades.

This is not only a very beautiful and decorative work of art but also a very important historical document. An early inscription, visible in the illustration in Country Life in 1943, but since apparently removed, suggests that it dates from 1662 but this is more likely to date when the garden started. This makes it the first in a great tradition of bird’s-eye views of country houses in Britain, and marks the beginning of large-scale topographical painting in this country, which would become celebrated in the work of artists such as Jan Sibrechts, Leonard Knyff and Jan Griffier. Most of these later works date from the end of the seventeenth and early into the eighteenth centuries and are by sophisticated foreign artists who visited England seeking aristocratic patronage. What makes the present picture of particular importance is not only the very early date but also the fact that it is evidence of a contemporary native tradition aware, through engravings, of earlier Dutch artists such as Hollar. The house as shown in this picture was probably built by Fulk Griffyth in the late sixteenth century, with a brick office range near the house added probably in the early seventeenth century by Sir Peter Mutton. Sir Peter’s daughter Anne married Robert Davies of Gwysaney, and it seems that it was their son, Mutton Davies, who was responsible for the splendid garden and who commissioned this picture. He was no doubt inspired by his trip to Italy between 1654 and 1658. The three-tier or terrace type of garden is immensely sophisticated and of a type advocated back in 1597 by William Lawson in A New Orchard and Garden. It should not be considered surprising that such a garden existed in what John Harris has described as 'remote Wales', as Denbighshire and Flint had a number of fine Jacobean houses, notably Plas-Teg, Nerquis Hall, Pentrehobyn, and Gwysaney. The proximity of the area to Chester and links between the North Wales coast and Lancashire helped to bring considerable prosperity to the region and explains the existence of so many fine houses.

The details shown of the garden are remarkable. A mounted figure is shown approaching a wooden front entrance from where he would dismount using the mounting-steps shown by the stables (probably contemporary with the garden). A gate to the right leads to the upper terrace with an impressive row of stone vases and red brick garden houses on each end. From there an elaborate semi-circular stairway leads to a flower garden with fruit trees growing against the wall. From a gazebo there is a view down to the third terrace with a central fountain and two summer houses. A slope flanked with specimen trees leads down to the Neptune pool and a further bridge in the bottom right corner leading to the river Clwyd. Philip Yorke, author of Royal Tribes of Wales, records that the garden contained a sundial with the inscription, 'Alas my friend time soon will overtake you And if you do not cry, by God I’ll make you', a reference to the fact that the sundial spouted water in your face. A seventeenth-century poem by Ffoulk Wynn describes the garden as follows: 'Elegantly he diverted streams of cold water into his gardens and, praise he, he can wander in a great garden which he made, in the grounds about his mansion, and costly are his devices!'

There are two versions of the picture. A smaller painting, similar in most respects – with the exception of its inclusion of St Asaph’s Cathedral on the horizon – was acquired in 1968 by the Yale Center for British Art in New Haven from Leggatt Brothers, the London dealers. It had previously been owned by Mrs Patrick Hardman, and in the nineteenth century was lent by A. Whitehall Dod of Llanerch to an exhibition at Wrexham. Mr Whitehall Dod had succeeded to the estates of Llanerch in 1841 on the death of his grandmother, the last of the Davies family. This suggests that the larger version hung from an early stage at Gwysaney, another property of Mutton Davies.

A History of the Garden by Elizabeth Whittle

Standing on the terrace in front of Llannerch Hall and looking eastwards down the steep, smooth grass slope to the valley floor and winding river Clwyd below it is hard to imagine that this rural scene was once the site of the most Italianate garden ever made in Wales. This is the garden laid out by Mutton Davies in the 1660s (probably finished in 1665) that is celebrated in the contemporary bird’s-eye view painting from Gwysaney, the Davies family home nearby.

Mutton Davies must have returned from Italy in 1658 with Italian gardens such as the Villa d’Este, Pratolino, and maybe even the great, terraced French garden of Saint-Germain-en-Laye fresh in his mind. In his new garden no Italianate element was left out and in particular water was harnessed so as to dominate the garden with pools, fountains, a formal cascade, hydraulic statues and water tricks. The last two were such novelties in north Wales that visitors went on remarking on them into the nineteenth century. Sadly, the garden met its end in the Victorian era.

Nothing as remotely Italian was created in Wales during this period, although many grand houses possessed formal, sometimes terraced, gardens, some dating back to the Tudor period. The great baroque gardens of Powis Castle and Chirk Castle were yet to come. Sketches by Thomas Dineley in The Beaufort Progress (1684) give glimpses of formal elements in gardens attached to the grand houses of the day: Powis Castle had a fountain, Margam Abbey pools, Ruperra Castle walled enclosures, all swept away. Chirk Castle’s terraced early garden, at Whitehurst, was made by Sir Thomas Myddleton in 1651. Its interest here lies in the ‘forreigne’ plants recorded as growing there, including orange and lemon trees. It is very likely that these would have been grown in the Llannerch garden not far away. The Gwysaney painting shows rows of fastigiated trees looking suspiciously like Italian cypresses.

One Welsh garden contemporary with that of Llannerch, Llanfihangel Court in Monmouthshire, is not only a remarkable survival from the period but is also celebrated in a similar bird’s-eye view painting. The terraced garden, summerhouses and axial avenues in the park were the creation of John Arnold, a Whig politician, in the 1670s. As with the Gwysaney painting, this layout, formal but not Italianate in the same way as Llannerch, is depicted in a large contemporary painting.

The Gwysaney painting gives a very rare and astonishingly detailed glimpse of a lost jewel in the Welsh cultural crown. Were the garden to exist today – and who knows what is buried beneath the turf? – it would be an extraordinarily unusual little piece of Italy transposed into the rural idyll of the Vale of Clwyd.  

See:
Country Life, 14 May 1943, reproduced fig. 5;
Steegman and D. Stroud, The Artist and the Country House, 1949, p. 35, no. 3, reproduced;
D. Harris, The Artist and the Country House, 1979, pp. 41 and 54;
A. M. Clevely, Topiary, 1988, p. 24;
E. Whittle, Historic Gardens of Wales, Cadw. HMSO, 1992, reproduced on the front cover.
London, Sotheby’s, The Glory of the Garden, 1987, no. 44;
Cardiff, Cardiff Castle, Welsh Treasures Exhibition, 11 November – 11 December 1987, no. 19.

1600s Garden

Bernard Lens II (British printmaker, 1659-1725) A lady holding flowers, within a formal garden with trees, terraces, fountains and ponds; a mansion in the distance.

Sunday, December 23, 2018

1680s-early 18C English Houses, Gardens, & Evolving Man-made Landscapes by Jan Griffer I (1645-1718)

1690 Jan Griffer I (Dutch artist, 1645-1718) London and the River Thames from One Tree Hill, Greenwich Park

Jan Griffier (ca 1652–1718) was a Dutch painter active in England, where he was admitted to the London Company of Painter-Stainers in 1677. The artist was born at Amsterdam, where he was apprenticed successively to a carpenter, an earthenware manufacturer, & a flower-painter before becoming a pupil ofRoelant Roghman (1627-1692)in landscape-painting. Mixing at Amsterdam in the societyof the great painters, such as Rembrandt, Ruysdael, & Lingelbach, he became acquainted with their various styles, & traces of their influence may be observed in his works. His city views, invaluable topographical evidence, suggest that his travels in England were extensive.

1614 Formal Garden

The Months print Hendrik Hondius II (Print made by); Hendrik Hondius I (Published by) 1614

Friday, December 21, 2018

17C Family On the Garden Terrace

Michiel van Musscher (1645-1705) A Family Group on a Garden Terrace 1670

1680s-early 18C English Houses, Gardens, & Evolving Man-made Landscapes by Jan Griffer I (1645-1718)

1680-90  Jan Griffer I (Dutch artist, 1645-1718) Bird's Eye View of Sudbury Hall South Front and Its Formal Gardens

Jan Griffier (ca 1652–1718) was a Dutch painter active in England, where he was admitted to the London Company of Painter-Stainers in 1677. The artist was born at Amsterdam, where he was apprenticed successively to a carpenter, an earthenware manufacturer, & a flower-painter before becoming a pupil ofRoelant Roghman (1627-1692)in landscape-painting. Mixing at Amsterdam in the society of the great painters, such as Rembrandt, Ruysdael, & Lingelbach, he became acquainted with their various styles, & traces of their influence may be observed in his works. His city views, invaluable topographical evidence, suggest that his travels in England were extensive.

Thursday, December 20, 2018

17C Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) + a Laurel Plant

Wenceslaus Hollar (Czech artist, 1607-1677) Lady with a laurel plant in an impressive flower pot.

Women & Gamepark Myths - 17C-18C Diana Female Hunter - Pastoral Allegory

1745 Jean-Marc Nattier (French painter, 1685-1766) Madame Adélaïde as the goddess Diana.  She has a crescent moon in her hair, a bow & quiver with an animal-skin at her waist.

Early European portrait artists painted their contemporaries as allegories.  Often painters would put the faces of their patrons on the bodies of Christian saints, whom they had been commissioned to portray. These came to be called donor portraits. As years passed, allegorical portraits remained popular, as they expanded to show the female sitter as a Biblical figure, a Greek or Roman goddess, or poetic muse, or nymph in in a gamepark or rustic setting.

In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt; the moon; & friend of wild animals, whom Diana could talk to & control.  Artists often depicted Diana wearing a classic tunic & sandals.  Some painted her holding a hunting spear or a hunting horn with a bow & a quiver on her shoulder.  Many Diana's were accompanied by friendly deer or hunting dogs.  Like Venus, she was portrayed as beautiful & youthful. Early artists sometimes depicted Diana wearing a crescent moon as a hair decoration & sometimes wearing an animal-skin wrap. 
Jan Mytens (Dutch artist, 1614-1670) Lady as Diana


 Jan Mytens (Dutch artist, 1614-1670) Lady as Diana


1550 Meister der Schule von Fontainebleau Diana the Huntress. This early Diana carries a bow & quiver & travels with her dog.  But, as for clothing, a few yards of cloth seems enough.

1590 Ambroise Dubois (Flemish-born French artist, 1542-43–1614-15) Gabrielle d'Estrees as Diana the Huntress with her faithful hunting dogs, Syrius & Phocion.  She has dogs, deer, a bow & quiver, a hunting horn, & a crescent moon in her hair.

 1630 Claude Deruet (French artist, 1588–1660) Marie de Rohan, Duchesse de Chevreuse as Diana the Huntress.  She has dogs, a bow & quiver, a hunting horn, & a crescent moon in her hair.

1635 Claude Deruet (French artist, 1588–1660) or Charles Beaubrun (Charles Bobrun) (French artist, 1604–1692)  Portrait of a Lady as Diana.   She has a quiver & a crescent moon in her hair.

1640 Joseph Werner the Elder (Swiss artist, 1600s) Young Lady as Diana with a hunting spear & some very impractical shoes. The slit dress & hells are also quite a surprise.

1640s Christina, Queen of Sweden Alexandra Maria Vasa (1626-1689) as Diana carrying a hunting spear.

1640 Willem van Honthorst (Dutch artist, 1594-1666) Henriette von Nassau as Diana with her faithful hunting dogs, Syrius & Phocion.  She carries a bow & quiver with feathers in her hair.

c 1635 Unknown artist, A Young Lady As Diana The Huntress

 1640s Ferdinand Bol (Dutch artist, 1616-1680) Portrait of a woman as Diana. She has a bow & quiver.

1640-50s Attributed to Giovanni Domenico Cerrini (Italian artist, 1609-1681) Christina, Queen of Sweden Alexandra Maria Vasa (1626-1689) as Diana.  Here she has her dog & a hunting spear.  The crescent moon hangs in the sky above them.

1650 Charles Beaubrun (Charles Bobrun) (French artist, 1604–1692) Portrait of a lady as Diana. She has a dog & a bow.

 1650 Jan van Mijtens (1613-1670) Lady as Diana. She has a tiny lap dog/hunting dog & carries a quiver on her back.

 1654 Justus van Egmont (Dutch painter, 1601-1674) Marie Anne Mancini as Diana the Huntress.  She has feathers in her hair & carries a bow & arrow, but she stands in a formal garden.

1661 Abraham Wuchters Christina, Queen of Sweden Alexandra Maria Vasa (1626-1689) as Diana holding an arrow.

1666 Giovanni Maria Morandi (Italian painter, 1622-1717) Claudia Felicitas of Austria as Diana.  She has a crescent moon in her hair, carries a hunting spear and has a dog at her side.

1667 Claude Lefèbvre (French painter, 1633–1675) Louise de La Vallière as Diana. She has a quiver & bow as well as her faithful hunting dogs, Syrius & Phocion.

1670s Copy of  Peter Lely (English artist, 1618-1680) Mary II (1662–1694), when Princess Mary of York, as Diana.  She has a crescent moon in her hair, a bow &arrow & only the head of her dog companion is visible.

Style of Peter Lely (English artist, 1618-1680) Ann Fanshawe (b.1654), Daughter of Sir Richard Fanshawe as Diana with a deer.


 1674 Jacob Huysmans (Flemish artist, c 1633–1696) Portrait of a Lady as Diana.  She has dogs, a bow  quiver, a hunting spear, & feathers in her hair.

1670s-90s Giovanni Battista Gaulli (Baciccio) (Italian artist, 1639-1709) Diana the Huntress with her hunting dogs, Syrius & Phocion.  Her bow & quiver lay on the ground.

 1680s Jacob Huysmans (Flemish artist, c 1633–1696)  Elizabeth Cornwallis (d.1708), Mrs Edward Allen, as Diana the Huntress with her faithful hunting dogs, Syrius & Phocion. . She has a hunting spear, & an animal skin decoration, & feathers in her hair.

 1688 Francois de Troy Lady Mary Herbert (1659–1744-1745), Viscountess Montagu, Previously the Honourable Lady Richard Molyneux, and Later Lady Maxwell, as Diana. She has a crescent moon in her hair, a dog, & an animal-skin component to her costume.

1700-10 Nicolas de Largillière (French artist, 1656-1746)  Portrait of Lady as Diana with her faithful hunting dogs, Syrius & Phocion.  She has a bow & quiver nearby.

 1743 Jean-Marc Nattier (French painter, 1685-1766) Madame la Comtesse d'Argenson.  She wears an animal-skin wrap & holds a bow with her quiver on her lap.

1700s Unknown French artist, Portrait of a Lady as Diana, Goddess of the Hunt.  She wears a crescent moon in her hair and has an animal-skin wrap, a dog, a quiver & a bow.

 1746 Jean-Marc Nattier (French painter, 1685-1766) Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour (1722-1764) as Diana the Huntress. She has a bow & quiver with an animal-skin wrap at her waist.

 1751 Pompeo Girolamo Batoni (Italian artist, 1708-1787) Sarah Lethieullier as Lady Fetherstonhaugh, as Diana.  She has a crescent moon in her hair, a bow & a dog.

 1752 Jean-Marc Nattier (French painter, 1685-1766) Madame de Pompadour as Diana.  She has a bow & an animal-skin wrap.

1765 Carle or Charles-André van Loo (French painter, 1705-1765) Luise Henriette Wilhelmine von Anhalt-Dessau as Diana.  She has a dog, an animal-skin wrap, a bow & quiver, & a crescent moon in her hair.

 1765 Francis Cotes (English Painter, 1726-1770) The Honourable Lady Stanhope and the Countess of Effingham as Diana, and Her Companion.  Diana has a hunting spear & a crescent moon in her hair.

 1769 Thomas Beach (English artist, 1738-1806) Elizabeth Phelips (1750–1841), as Diana the Huntress.  She has a bow & quiver.



 1770 Thomas Beach (English artist, 1738-1806) Miss Elizabeth Phelips, dressed as Diana.  She has a bow.

1773 after François-Hubert Drouais (French artist, 1727-1775) Marie-Joséphine-Louise de Savoie (1753–1810), comtesse de Provence, as Diana with her faithful hunting dogs, Syrius & Phocion. She has a bow, & an animal-skin wrap.

1771 Robert Hunter (Irish artist, fl. 1748–1780) Lady Margaret Butler Lowry-Corry (1748–1775), as Diana.  She has a dog & carries a hunting spear.

1787 Ludwig Guttenbrunn (Austrian artist, 1750-1819) A portrait of Marie Joséphine de Savoy, the comtesse de Provence as Diana with her faithful hunting dogs, Syrius & Phocion.  She has a bow & quiver, & a crescent moon in her hair.