Illustrated manuscripts and early depictions of landscapes in portrayals of Biblical gardens give us a glimpse of gardens familiar & imagined during the periods the images were created.
John 18:1; “When Jesus had spoken these words, He went forth with His disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which He entered, and His disciples.” Other scriptures, such as, (Matthew 26:36) note, that this garden was called “Gethsemane.”
Prayer Book, including Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane, Walters Manuscript W.164, fol. 15v
The garden at Gethsemane, a place whose name literally means oil press, is located on a slope of the Mount of Olives just across the Kidron Valley from Jerusalem. A garden of ancient olive trees stands there to this day. Gethsemane is most famous as the place where Jesus prayed & his disciples slept the night before Jesus' crucifixion. According to the New Testament it was a place that Jesus & his disciples customarily visited, which allowed Judas to find him on the night of his arrest. Gethsemane appears in Matthew (26:36) & Mark (14:32). The Gospel of John says Jesus frequently went to Gethsemane with His disciples to pray (John 18:2). In the Bible at John 18:1l “When Jesus had spoken these words, He went forth with His disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which He entered, and His disciples.” From other scriptures, such as, Matthew 26:36 we know that this garden was called “Gethsemane.”
Albani-Psalter Christus in Getsemane c 1130
Illuminated Manuscript, Book of Hours in Dutch, Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane, Walters Manuscript W.918, fol. 104v
The Agony in the Garden, from a 14th-century Book of Hours (BL Egerton 2781, f.136v)
1270 Manuscript Leaf with the Agony in the Garden from a Royal Psalter
1440 Agony in the Garden, with architectural frame and floreate border.
1599-25 Agony in the garden Simon Bening (1483-1561) or follower From a Book of Hours (use of Rome) of Southern Netherlands (Den Haag, MMW, 10 E 3). Passion according to St. John
Agony in the Garden Walters Ms. W.173, Book of Hours